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БОИНГ-ийн ослын талаарх таамаглал ба агаарын тээвэрлэгчдэд учрах хүндрэл

Сүүлийн 5 сарын хугацаанд «Боинг-737 Макс 8» загварын хоёр нисэх онгоц осолдсоноор 346 хүний аминд хүрлээ. Дөнгөж 2017 онд үйлдвэрлэж эхэлсэн шинэ загварын энэ нисэх онгоц ойр ойрхон осолдон сүйрсэн нь орчин үеийн иргэний агаарын тээврийн түүхэнд гарч байгаагүй тохиолдол юм.



10 хоногийн өмнө "Ethiopian Airlines" компанийн нисэх онгоц осолдсоны дараахан Хятад, Индонез, Вьетнам, Сингапур, Малайз, Аргентин, Мексик, Бразил, Их Британи улс Boeing 737 MAX загварын нисэх онгоцны нислэгийг зогсоох шийдвэр гаргалаа. Мөн Европын Холбооны гишүүн орнуудаднислэгийг зогсоосон байна.

Осол гарсны маргааш нь буюу даваа гарагт АНУ-ын Холбооны иргэний агаарын тээврийн удирдах газар мэдэгдэхдээ “Боинг-737 Макс»-ыг нисгэхгүй байх шалтгаан алга” гэж байсан боловч лхагва гарагийн орой Ерөнхийлөгч Д.Трампшийдвэр гаргаж,тусгай захирамж гарах хүртэл Boeing 737 Max 8 ба Max 9 загварын онгоцуудын нислэгийг зогсоолоо. Ингэснээр дэлхийн улс орнуудаас хамгийн сүүлд Боинг-737 Макс”-ийн нислэгийг зогсоосон улс нь АНУ болов. Одоогийн байдлаар ослын шалтгааныг мөрдөн шалгах ажиллагаа явагдаж байгаа бөгөөд наад зах нь 5 дугаар сар хүртэл шинэ загварын нисэх онгоцуудыг нислэгт гаргахгүй бололтой.  

MCAS систем буруутай юу эсвэл нисгэгчид буруутай юу?

Өнгөрсөн оны 10 дугаар сард осолдон сүйрсэн Индонезийн онгоц ба Ethiopian Airlines компанийн онгоц ижил төстэй шалтгаанаар осолдсон гэж Этиопийн Зам, тээврийн сайд онгоцны хар хайрцгийг сэргээх явцад олдсон мэдээлэлд үндэслэн мэдэгджээ.

Ослын шалтгааныг мөрдөн шалгах ажиллагааны урьдчилсан дүгнэлтийг үзвэл, ойр ойрхон гарсан хоёр осол нь шинэ загварын Boeing 737 MAX 8 онгоцонд суурилуулсан MCAS цахим системд гарсан алдаанаас үүдэлтэй байж магадгүй гэж таамаглаж байгаа аж.

Уг системийг суурилуулах болсон шалтгааныг товч тайлбарлаваас, 737 Max загварын онгоцонд өмнөх 737-800 NG-ийн загварынонгоцныхөдөлгүүрээсарайилүү голчтой, илүү хүчин чадалтай CFM LEAP-1B маркийн хөдөлгүүрийг үл ялиг илүү өндөрт, арай урагшлуулж байрлуулсан байна. Энэ нь агаарт байгаа онгоцны хөдөлгөөнд нөлөөлж, нислэгийн явцад онгоцны хошуу нь өргөгдөх байдал бий болсон аж. Хэрвээ эл байдал хяналтаас гарвал хурд саарч, онгоц унах эрсдэлтэй. Ийм эрсдэлээс зайлсхийхийн тулд МСАS /Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System/ буюу “Маневр гүйцэтгэх үзүүлэлтүүдийг сайжруулах систем”-ийг шинэ загварын “БОИНГ”-нд суурилуулжээ. Дайралтын өнцөг нэмэгдсэн үед ажиллаж эхэлдэгугсистем нь агаарт онгоцны байрлалыг тохируулах, өндрийг хасах жолоодлого гүйцэтгэх үед нисгэгчдэд тусалдаг. Дайралтын өнцөг гэдэг нь нисэх онгоцны далавчны чиглэл ба өмнөөс ирж буй агаарын урсгалын чиглэлийн хоорондын өнцөг юм. Онгоцыг гар удирдлагаар жолоодох үед дайралтын өнцөг арай их байдаг бөгөөд энэ үед MCAS систем ажиллажэхлэн, онгоцны хошууг доошлуулдаг. Тодруулбал, онгоцны хошуу өргөгдөж, хурдаа авах эргэлтийн маневрийг тангаж гэдэг бөгөөд уг маневрийг MCAS системээр удирддаг гэсэн үг. Системийг суурилуулснаар нисгэгчийн бүхээг дэх хянах самбарууд нь дэвшилтэт технологийн дэлгэцээр солигдсоноор нисэх багийн гишүүдийн гүйцэтгэх ажиллагаа хөнгөвчлөгдөж, элдэв олон зүйлд сатаарахгүй болжээ.


Харин Индонезийн онгоц сүйрсний дараа “тухайн онгоцонд автомат систем суурилуулсан боловч уг систем дээрхэрхэнажиллах талаар нисгэгчдэд сургалт явуулаагүй” гэж БОИНГ корпорацийг буруутгаж эхэлсэн байна.

Нөгөөтэйгүүр,Индонезийн онгоцны мэдрэгч нь эвдрэлтэй байсан учраас дайралтын өнцгийн талаарх буруу мэдээллийг MCAS системд өгсөний улмаас осол гарсан гэх яриа гарчээ.Тодруулбал,Индонезийн нислэгийн аюулгүй байдлын албаны мэдээлснээр, өнгөрсөн оны 10 дугаар сард осолдсон «Лайон эйр» компанийн онгоцон дахь дайралтын өнцгийг тодорхойлдог мэдрэгч 4 удаа алдаатай мэдээлэл өгч байсан бөгөөд осол болохын өмнөхөнугмэдрэгчийг сольсон байна.Осол болох үедИндонезийн нисгэгчидавтомат удирдлагаас гар удирдлага руу шилжиж,онгоцны хошууг дээш нь өргөх гэж 20 гаруй удаа оролдсонболовчМСАS системтухай бүрүүний эсрэг үйлдлийг хийж байсан байна. Ослын шалтгааныг тодруулах ажиллагаа дуусаагүй байгаа боловч Этиопт болсон ослын шалтгаан нь үүнтэй төстэй байж магадгүй гэсэн таамаглал хэвлэлүүдэд гараад байна. Хиймэл дагуулаас авсан мэдээллийг үзвэл, Этиопийн нисгэгчид хөөрсний дараагаас л онгоцоо хянаж чадахгүй болжээ. Онгоцны хошуу гэнэт өргөгдөж, гэнэт доошилж байсан бөгөөд дөнгөж 370 метрийн өндөрт гараад байх үед онгоцны хурд маш аюултай түвшинд буюу 700 км/цагт хүрсэн нь ослын гол шалтгаан болсон гэж шинжээчид таамаглаж байна.Хэдийгээронгоцны дарга МСАS системийг салгаж амжсан байж магадгүй боловч нэгэнт оройтсон байлаа.      
Нөгөөтэйгүүр, өнгөрсөн онд Индонезийн “Лайэн эйр” компанийн онгоц сүйрэх үед шинжээчид дүгнэхдээ, ослын шалтгаан нь нисгэгчдийнурчадвар муу байсантай холбоотой гэж байсан.  10 хоногийн өмнө Этиопт болсон осол ч мөн адил нисгэгчдийн туршлага дутсантай холбоотой байж магадгүй тухай Блүүмбэрг-ийн мэдээлэлд дурдсан байна. Тодруулбал, Этиопийн нисгэгч Ахмед нур Мохаммод Нур агаарт ердөө 200-хан цагийн нислэг үйлдсэн байжээ. Харьцуулваас, АНУ-д 2 дугаар нисгэгчээр ажиллахын тулд 1500-аас доошгүй цагийн нислэг үйлдсэн байх ёстой. 

БОИНГ болон агаарын тээвэрлэгчдэд учрах хүндрэл  

Агаарын тээвэрлэгчдэд нийлүүлсэн онгоцуудыг нь нислэг үйлдэхийг хориглосны улмаас “Боинг” корпораци санхүүгийн алдагдал хүлээж эхлээд байна. Этиопт осол болсноос хойших 10 хоногийн хугацаанд тус компанийн хувьцааны ханш 11 хувиар унаж, нэгж хувьцааны үнэ 375 доллар болоод байгаа нь 2001 оны 9 дүгээр сарын 11-ний халдлагаас хойш болсон хамгийн том уналт юм. Ингэснээр тус компанийн зах зээл дэх хөрөнгийн үнэлгээ 26 тэрбум доллароор буурч, 212 тэрбум доллар болсон байна. Гэсэн хэдий ч ослын шалтгааныг мөрдөн шалгах комиссын дүгнэлтийг хүлээн зөвшөөрч, шуурхай арга хэмжээ авсан тохиолдолд дээрх үнэлгээ богино хугацаанд дахиад өснө гэж шинжээчид үзэж байна. 
Иргэний агаарын тээврийн компаниудад байгаа Boeing 737 MAX 8 нисэх онгоцны тоо 

АНУ-ын Холбооны иргэний агаарын тээврийн удирдах газраас Boeing 737 MAX 8 онгоцыг нисгэхийг хориглох тухай шийдвэр гаргасны дараа Боинг корпораци захиалагчдад онгоц нийлүүлэхээ түр зогсоосон боловч үйлдвэрлэл хэвийн явагдаж байна. Харин зарим томоохон агаарын тээврийн компаниуд захиалгаа цуцлах тухай мэдэгдэж эхэлжээ. Тухайлбал, Индонезийн Garuda Indonesia компани 20 онгоцны захиалгаа цуцалж магадгүй гэдгээ мэдэгдсэн бол 25 тэрбум долларын захиалга өгчихөөд байгаа Вьетнамын VietJet компани, 50 онгоц авах захиалга өгөөд буй Саудын Аравийн Flyadeal компани ослын шалтгааныгмөрдөн шалгах комиссын дүгнэлтээс шалтгаалан захиалгаа цуцлах эсэхээ шийдэх аж.                                                                                                                                       
Нөгөөтэйгүүр, хэрвээ ослын шалтгааны мөрдөн тогтоох ажиллагаа сунжирч, 737 Max онгоцоор нислэг үйлдэх зөвшөөрлийг өгөхгүй удаж, шинэ онгоцны нийлүүлэлт саатах аваас агаарын тээврийн компаниудын хувьд нөхцөл байдал хүндэрч болзошгүй. Компаниуд жуулчны улирлын ид ачааллын үеэр лизингийн компаниудаас онгоц түрээслэхээс өөр аргагүйд хүрэх бөгөөд БОИНГ 737-800 хуучин загварын онгоцыг багийн гишүүдийн цалин, ашиглалтын зардал, даатгалын төлбөрийг оролцуулан түрээслэхэд цагт 3-3,3 мянган доллар төлдөг байна. Харин экипажийг авахгүйгээр, ашиглалтын зардлыг нь оруулахгүйгээр сард 230-330 мянган долларын төлбөр төлөхөөр байгаа нь агаарын тээврийн компаниудад арай хямд тусна.

Нөгөөтэйгүүр, шинэ онгоц худалдаж авахаар төлөвлөж байсан агаарын тээвэрлэгчид хуучин онгоцнуудынхаа ашиглалтын хугацааг сунгах, ашиглалтаас гаргасан онгоцуудаа дахин нисгэхэд хүрч магадгүй.Энэ тохиолдолдонгоцны ашиглалтын зардал мэдэгдэхүйц өснө.  

Boeing 737 Max-ын нислэгийг зогсоосон нь аюулгүй байдлын үүднээс онгоцнуудыг ашиглахыг зогсоосон цорын ганц тохиолдол биш юм. 2013 онд Boeing - 787 Dreamliner загварын онгоцны аккумулятор шатсаны улмаас нислэгийг зогсоож байв. Инженерүүд техникийн доголдлын шалтгааныг богино хугацаанд олж тогтоосноор уг онгоцыг нислэгт дахин гаргаж байсан бөгөөд уг онгоцыг худалдан авах захиалгын тоо буурахгүй байна.  

McDonnell Douglas компанийн DC-10 загвар нь ашиглалтын эхэн үедээ аюулгүй байдлын тал дээр асуудал үүсгэж байсан бөгөөд 1979 онд уг онгоц осолдож, 271 хүний аминд хүрсний дараа ашиглалтаас хассан байна. АНУ-ын иргэний агаарын тээврийн түүхэнд тохиолдсон энэхүү хамгийн аймшигт ослын дараа DC-10  загварыг ашиглалтаас гаргасан боловч уг онгоцыг шинэчилсний дараа 2017 он хүртэл дахин ашиглаж байсан ажээ.

В737МАХ-8-ын давуу талууд

Дэлхий даяар хүмүүсийн амьдрал ахуй сайжирч, аялж жуулчлах нь ихэсч, онгоцоор зорчигчдын тоо байнга өссөөр байгаа билээ. Тухайлбал, 2037 он гэхэд зорчигчдын тоо 2 дахин нэмэгдэж, жилд 8,2 тэрбумд хүрэх бөгөөд уг өсөлтийн 54 хувь нь Ази-Номхон далайн орнуудад ногдоно гэсэн тооцоо бий. Иймээс агаарын тээвэрлэгчид онгоцныхоо паркийг өргөжүүлж, харин нисэх онгоц үйлдвэрлэгчид хөдөлгүүрээ улам боловсронгуй болгосоор байгаа нь тасалбарын үнэ буурахад нөлөөлнө гэж үзэж байна. 

Дэлхийн агаарын тээвэрлэгч бүр эдийн засгийн үр өгөөжтэй, найдвартай ажиллагаатай, тохь тухтай агаарын хөлөгтэй болохыг эрэлхийлж буй өнөө үед В737МАХ-8 нь агаарын тээврийн зах зээлд хамгийн их борлуулалттай дундын зайн агаарын хөлөг болж байгаа юм. Тодруулбал, өмнөх загвартай харьцуулахад түлшний зарцуулалт нь 14 хувиар бага, дуу чимээ 40 хувиар бага, агаарт ялгаруулах нүүрсхүчлийн хийн хэмжээ мэдэгдэхүйц бага, байгаль орчинд ээлтэй тээврийн хэрэгсэл учраас дэлхийн агаарын тээвэрлэгчид хэдэнмянгаар нь захиалаад байгаа юм. Boeing 737 New Generation загварыг нэлээд сайжруулсан хувилбар болох 737 Max загвар нь Боинг компанийн түүхэнд хамгийн борлуулалт сайтай онгоц бөгөөд өдгөө дэлхий даяар 370 орчим ийм төрлийн нисэх онгоцууд нислэг үйлдэж байна.

Блүүмбэрг агентлагийн мэдээлэлд дурдсаныг үзвэл, дэлхийн агаарын тээврийн компаниуд 737 MAX загварын нийтдээ 5000 орчим онгоц худалдан авах 600 тэрбум долларын захиалга өгөөд байгаа нь Швейцарь улсын нэг жилийн ДНБ-тэй тэнцэж байна.

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